Shalom J. Wind, Ph.D.
Senior Research Scientist, Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics
The astounding growth of the electronics industry over the last several decades has been based primarily upon the ability to shrink the features of individual device and circuit components to smaller and smaller dimensions. The semiconductor industry anticipates that transistor features will be scaled to less than 10 nm some time in the next decade. Thus, semiconductor technology will soon be entering the biomolecular size regime. Already in our research laboratories and others, devices and structures are being fabricated with dimensions of only a few nanometers. This new ability to controllably structure matter at nanometer-scale dimensions, originally motivated by the needs of the microelectronics industry, is creating new opportunities in biology and medicine, which have the potential for enormous impact.
The aim of the research in my laboratory within the context of the NanoMedicine Center for Mechanical Biology is to develop new devices and structures that will help to further our understanding of the role of mechanical factors (i.e., force, rigidity, and form) in regulating the function of cells and protein complexes. We use many of the tools and techniques common to the study of nanoscale electronic structures and devices, and we customize them for application to biomaterials. These techniques include lithographic patterning (including photolithography, electron beam lithography, and nanoimprint lithography), physical and chemical vapor deposition atomic layer deposition, reactive ion etching, surface chemical preparation, and complete process integration. These techniques are used to produce both passive and active surfaces for probing or manipulating biological function.
An example of the power of nanofabrication to address key issues in biology is shown in figure 1. We produce arrays of fibronectin-functionalized metal nanodots arranged in pairs (each dot is ~ 5 nm), with the spacing between each pair of dots varied between ~ 20 nm and 100 nm (figure 2). These arrays are being used to study the dependence of cytoplasmic protein binding interactions on ligand spacing. It is presently hypothesized that the binding sites of proteins such as talin are ~ 50 — 60 nm apart. Using our arrays, we can determine this spacing directly, by observing binding persistence using TIRF (total internal reflectance fluorescence) microscopy. New therapies and diagnostic tools may be developed on the basis of our studies. The movie shows RPTP cells migrating to and spreading on such arrays.
Background and Education
Shalom J. Wind received his B.A. degree in physics from Yeshiva University and his M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from Yale University. He joined IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center in 1987, following his doctoral studies. His work there focused primarily on the fabrication and study of nanostructures and nanodevices. Wind joined the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics at Columbia University in 2003. He is also a member of the NSF-funded Center for Electron Transport in Molecular Nanostructures and the NIH-funded NanoMedicine Center for Mechanical Biology at Columbia. His present research focuses on molecular scale electronic systems as well as the application of nanofabrication to address key problems in biology.
Guo X, Small JP, Klare JE, Wang Y, Tam I, Purewal MS, Hong BH, Caldwell R, Huang L, O'Brien S, Yan J, Breslow R, Wind SJ, Hone J, Kim P, Nuckolls C.
Chen Z, Appenzeller J, Lin Y-M, Oakley JS, Rinzler AG, Tang J, Wind SJ, Solomon P, Avouris Ph.
Avouris Ph, Radosavljevi_ M, Wind SJ.
Wind SJ, Appenzeller J, Avouris Ph.
Wind SJ, Appenzeller J, Martel R, Derycke V, Avouris Ph.
Wind SJ, Shi L, Lee K-L, Roy RA, Zhang Y, Sikorski E, Kozlowski P, D'emic C, Bucchignano JJ, Wann H-J, Viswanathan RG, Cai J, Taur Y.
Wind SJ, Gerber PD, Rothuizen H.
Wind SJ, Taur Y, Lee YH, Mii Y, Viswanathan RG, Bucchignano JJ, Pomerene AT, Sicina RM, Milkove KR, Stiebritz JW, Roy RA, Hu CK, Manny MP, Cohen S, Chen W.
Wind SJ, Reeves CM, Bucchignano JJ, Lii YT, Newman TH, Klaus DP, Keller J, Volant RP, Tebin B, Hohn FJ.
Meirav U, Kastner MA, Wind SJ.