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Faculty Biographies

Shalom J. Wind, Ph.D.

Senior Research Scientist, Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics
Adjunct Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering

Shalom J. Wind

Contact Information
Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics
Center for Electron Transport in Molecular Nanostructures
Columbia University
1020 Schapiro CEPSR
530 West 120th Street
New York, NY 10027 USA
Phone: +1 212-854-5122
Fax: +1 212-854-1909


Research Theme

The astounding growth of the electronics industry over the last several decades has been based primarily upon the ability to shrink the features of individual device and circuit components to smaller and smaller dimensions. The semiconductor industry anticipates that transistor features will be scaled to less than 10 nm some time in the next decade. Thus, semiconductor technology will soon be entering the biomolecular size regime. Already in our research laboratories and others, devices and structures are being fabricated with dimensions of only a few nanometers. This new ability to controllably structure matter at nanometer-scale dimensions, originally motivated by the needs of the microelectronics industry, is creating new opportunities in biology and medicine, which have the potential for enormous impact.

The aim of the research in my laboratory within the context of the NanoMedicine Center for Mechanical Biology is to develop new devices and structures that will help to further our understanding of the role of mechanical factors (i.e., force, rigidity, and form) in regulating the function of cells and protein complexes. We use many of the tools and techniques common to the study of nanoscale electronic structures and devices, and we customize them for application to biomaterials. These techniques include lithographic patterning (including photolithography, electron beam lithography, and nanoimprint lithography), physical and chemical vapor deposition atomic layer deposition, reactive ion etching, surface chemical preparation, and complete process integration. These techniques are used to produce both passive and active surfaces for probing or manipulating biological function.

An example of the power of nanofabrication to address key issues in biology is shown in figure 1. We produce arrays of fibronectin-functionalized metal nanodots arranged in pairs (each dot is ~ 5 nm), with the spacing between each pair of dots varied between ~ 20 nm and 100 nm (figure 2). These arrays are being used to study the dependence of cytoplasmic protein binding interactions on ligand spacing. It is presently hypothesized that the binding sites of proteins such as talin are ~ 50 — 60 nm apart. Using our arrays, we can determine this spacing directly, by observing binding persistence using TIRF (total internal reflectance fluorescence) microscopy. New therapies and diagnostic tools may be developed on the basis of our studies. The movie shows RPTP cells migrating to and spreading on such arrays.

Background and Education

Shalom J. Wind received his B.A. degree in physics from Yeshiva University and his M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from Yale University. He joined IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center in 1987, following his doctoral studies. His work there focused primarily on the fabrication and study of nanostructures and nanodevices. Wind joined the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics at Columbia University in 2003. He is also a member of the NSF-funded Center for Electron Transport in Molecular Nanostructures and the NIH-funded NanoMedicine Center for Mechanical Biology at Columbia. His present research focuses on molecular scale electronic systems as well as the application of nanofabrication to address key problems in biology.

Selected Publications

Guo X, Small JP, Klare JE, Wang Y, Tam I, Purewal MS, Hong BH, Caldwell R, Huang L, O'Brien S, Yan J, Breslow R, Wind SJ, Hone J, Kim P, Nuckolls C.
Covalently bridging gaps in single-walled carbon nanotubes with conducting molecules.
Science. 2006;311: 356-356.

Chen Z, Appenzeller J, Lin Y-M, Oakley JS, Rinzler AG, Tang J, Wind SJ, Solomon P, Avouris Ph.
Single carbon nanotube low power integrated logic circuit.
Submitted to Science.

Cherniavskaya O, Chen CJ, Heller E, Sun E, Provezano J, Kam L, Hone J, Sheetz MP, Wind SJ.
Fabrication and surface chemistry of nanoscale bioarrays designed for the study of cytoskeletal protein binding interactions and their effect on cell motility.
J Vac Sci Technol. 2005;B.23:2972-2978.

Avouris Ph, Radosavljevi_ M, Wind SJ.
Carbon nanotube electronics and optoelectronics.
In: Rotkin SV, Subramoney S, eds.
Applied Physics of Carbon Nanotubes.
Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2005.

Wind SJ, Appenzeller J, Avouris Ph.
Lateral scaling in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.
Phys Rev Lett. 2003;91:058301.

Wind SJ, Appenzeller J, Martel R, Derycke V, Avouris Ph.
Vertical scaling of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors using top gate electrodes.
Appl Phys Lett. 2002;80:3817-3819.

Wind SJ, Shi L, Lee K-L, Roy RA, Zhang Y, Sikorski E, Kozlowski P, D'emic C, Bucchignano JJ, Wann H-J, Viswanathan RG, Cai J, Taur Y.
Very high performance 50 nm CMOS at low temperature.
IEDM Tech. Dig. 1999;928-930.

Wind SJ, Gerber PD, Rothuizen H.
Accuracy and efficiency in electron beam proximity effect correction.
J Vac Sci Technol. 1998;B16:3262-3268.

Wind SJ, Taur Y, Lee YH, Mii Y, Viswanathan RG, Bucchignano JJ, Pomerene AT, Sicina RM, Milkove KR, Stiebritz JW, Roy RA, Hu CK, Manny MP, Cohen S, Chen W.
Lithography and fabrication processes for sub-100 nm scale complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors.
J Vac Sci Technol. 1995;B13:2688.

Wind SJ, Reeves CM, Bucchignano JJ, Lii YT, Newman TH, Klaus DP, Keller J, Volant RP, Tebin B, Hohn FJ.
Fabrication of compact 100 nm-scale silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors.
J Vac Sci Technol. 1992;B10:2912-2916.

Meirav U, Kastner MA, Wind SJ.
Single-electron charging and periodic conductance resonances in GaAs nanostructures.
Phys Rev Lett. 1990;65:771-774.

Cell spreading on nanoscale bioarrays

Research Examples